Type locality: "Habitat in siccis apricis calidis"; identified as Sweden by Thomas (1911a:153); domesticated stock.
Distribution: Urial or Arkar in Afghanistan, NW India (Kashmir), NE and SE Iran, SW Kazakhstan, Oman (introduced?), Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Intermediate Laristan sheep in S Iran. Red Sheep or Mouflon in Armenia, S Azerbaijan, N Iraq, W Iran, and S and E Turkey; transported populations (Mouflon) on Corsica and Sardinia, introduced from there to Europe, Ukraine (Crimea), USA (incl. Hawaiian Isls), Chile, Kerguelen Isls, and Tenerife (Canary Isls); and on Cyprus. Domesticated worldwide; feral populations on St. Kilda and other small islands off the British Isles; improved domestic stock feral in Norway, Sweden, USA, islands off coasts of United Kingdom and New Zealand, Kerguelen Isls, and probably other oceanic islands.
Status: CITES â€“ Appendix I as O. orientalis ophion and O. vignei vignei, Appendix II as O. vignei; U.S. ESA â€“ Endangered as O. musimonophion and O. vignei vignei; IUCN â€“ Endangered as O. orientalis ophion, O. o. bochariensis, O. o. punjabiensis, and O. o. vignei, Vulnerable as O. o. isphahanica, O. o. laristanica, O. o. arkal, O. o. gmelini, O. o. musimon, and O. o. cycloceros.
Comments: Includes orientalis; see Nadler et al. (1973). Also includes musimon and ophion, introduced in Neolithic to Corsica, Sardinia and Cyprus; see Payne (1968), Vigne (1988), and Hemmer (1990). For correct authorship of musimon, see Uerpmann (1980); Pallas (1811) included the Mouflon of Sardinia and Corsica described by Cetti with the Arkar of Turkmenistan and Iran as syntypes of musimon (Heptner et al., 1961). To avoid musimon being a senior synonym of arkal, the lectotype of musimon must be designated as a Corsican or Sardinian Mouflon. Gentry et al. (1996) proposed that majority usage be confirmed by adoption of Ovis orientalis as the name for the wild taxon of Red Sheep and asked the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to use its plenary powers to rule that the name for this wild species is not invalid by virtue of being antedated by the name based on the domestic form. A ruling has now been made in their fav... [truncated]